The Bible and Archaeology
Seal of Jereboam
Beth Shean
Egypt
House of David
Ophir
Moab
Tel Mardikh
Assyria
Hezekiah's aquaduct
Sennacherib
Babylon
Temple Notice
The Challenge of the spade

Bible Basics

 Bible

Egypt

Right from early Egyptian history mud bricks were used as a basic material for construction. In the course of the Early Dynastic Period (about 3100-2613 BC) and the Old Kingdom (about 2613-2160 BC) bricks remained the basic building material for both palaces and ordinary houses. Stone did not appear until a later date and then only for temples and the tombs of the elite.

Bricks used for building were made from Nile mud mixed with sand and straw, which  gave the mud brick strength.

Bricks used for specific building projects were often stamped with the name of the king for whom it was being built. Many of the bricks discovered carry  the sovereign seal of Pharaoh Ramesses II who became obsessed with the desire to create memorials of himself for posterity.

We are reminded of the scriptural account in Exodus chapters 1 and 5, because it was the Israelite slaves who undertook many building works for Pharaoh under harsh and extremely difficult conditions.

It is generally thought that Ramesses II was the ruler who used the  Israelite slave labour to build the treasure cities of Pithom and Raamses (Exodus 1:11- Ch. 2) and also the one ruling at the time that Moses led his people's exodus from Egypt towards the promised land. This brick reminds us of historical times past when God has used His power to save His people; a feat which will be repeated preparatory to the establishment of God's kingdom on earth (Jeremiah 30:10-11).

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